Disease In the 16th and early 17th centuries the Plaque struck. 5,000 died as a result.
Coal In 1600 -the Coal trade from Newcastle was thriving. (17th C) Local land was rich in coal. Records also show large shipments from the river in the 14th Century. The river exported coal almost continuously until the mid 20th Century. Coal brought about prosperity and change.
Change Changes associated with industrial wealth began. Settlements grew around the Town, houses were built outside the Town. Inside the walls the Town was changing, Sandhill is an example. Still standing are Bessie Surtees House and The Cooperage. Build at the same time was a new Town Hall, Guildhall and Trinity House. See Quayside Walk. Walk the historic Quayside
Punishments In the 17th and 18th centuries, hangings took place on The Town Moor, Westgate, or in the market place in Newgate Street. In August 1640 14 women, plus 1 man for ‘Witchcraft’, 9 Moss Troupers for ‘Robbery’, a man for 'horse stealing' and 2 for coining.
2nd Scottish Occupation In 1640 during the civil war, Royalist Troops retreated South from Newcastle, the Scottish took the Town. A year later they left. Charles doubled the strength of the Royalist troops based at Newcastle.
Siege In 1644 (Third Scottish Occupation) Civil War at a peak, Cromwell’s ‘Parliamentary’ troops were advancing, Royal troops at Newcastle went South to fight. The Scottish arrived with over 30,000 men. John Marley the Mayor and The Town with only 1,500 defenders were for 3 months attacked constantly before the walls were eventually breached. The Scots, (Parliamentary Supporters), took the Town …King Charles gave Newcastle its motto ‘Fortiter Defendit Triumphans’.
Royal Prisoner. ‘Civil War’. In 1646 Charles surrendered. He was brought and held at Newcastle by the Scottish. They later sold him to the Parliamentarians for a ‘Kings Ransom’.